Transferring Ownership of Writing to Students

The post that appears below is the original, unedited draft I submitted to Edutopia, an amazing website of all things education! (To all my readers working in schools, it is highly valuable and worth following.)

Their Own Writes: Transferring Ownership to Students

Control a student’s writing, and you have a good paper. 

Transfer ownership to a student, and you have a good writer. 

Thought not exactly about fish anymore, this adage is something I am constantly striving for in my high school English classroom. The more I can set up conditions that allow students to be in control of their writing, the better. In this way, they will not just score well in my class; more importantly, they will foster the skills necessary across curriculum and throughout their lifetime to be effective communicators. Here are some steps I’ve applied over the years to transfer writing ownership to students.

Open the Gate.

One of the biggest pitfalls I see in my teaching is when students become reliant on me to be the gatekeeper of good writing. Some surefire signs that this is happening: they rely on weasel words such as “good” and “bad” that don’t really describe anything helpful; they don’t know how to use a rubric; I hear these questions: “Miss, is this good?” or “Miss, can you read this?”

I have found using models regularly in the classroom to be the best way to cede my role as gatekeeper. We can write collaboratively as a whole class to feel good writing form. I write models for students, either in front of them or often beforehand, and then we deconstruct it together, usually with color coding and annotations. Something I did this year that worked well was a station activity with student examples. Students previously wrote a paragraph and I selected some based on relevant skills. Then in groups, they traveled to each of the stations, discussing strengths and comparisons to their own paragraphs, and finally they independently reflected on a graphic organizer. However, the single most important strategy to stepping down as gatekeeper is the collaborative scoring of student samples. For this process, I pair students up with a rubric. They have to read samples, then come to a consensus for each criteria. After this process is complete, we moderate as a whole class. 

Provide a Mirror.

Once students become the gatekeepers, a critical next step is metacognition.

I build in lots of opportunities for students to reflect on their writing throughout the entire process. Recently, students were assigned to show up to class with half a draft. Their first task in class was a reflection form. I then used that to guide writing conferences, only zeroing in on their self-identified areas of feedback. Often, after writing mini-lessons and/or workshopping, I ask students to email me a plan as an exit slip outlining what they noticed in their writing and what are their specific next steps. 

Pass the Gavel.

Now that students know what constitutes good writing, reflect on it in relationship to themselves, it is time for evaluation. Any humanities teacher will gladly tell you about the time-intensive work of grading papers. But…if we can transfer ownership to the students, evaluation can be independent, thus ongoing and formative!

Very rarely do I have students submit an essay without self-scoring. If it is the final, I have them do it directly on the rubric. One of my favorite pieces of feedback to give is “I 100% agree with your self-reflection!” This puts the student in the driver’s seat of his/her own learning. If it is a draft, I like Google forms for this task. I also almost always build in time during class for peer feedback and evaluation of a completed draft. My favorite way to do this is with a graphic organizer broken down by rubric criterion (like this one [without scoring] or this one [with scoring]). The first task is for students to write down what area they are worried about and seeking feedback in (sometimes this is embedded on the graphic organizer; sometimes I have them write it on a post-it). Then students pass the graphic organizer along with printed essay for peer feedback and/or scoring rounds. 

Please Apply.

All of this sets up the premise that students can be in charge of their writing. However, what really matters is the space to apply the feedback. So often–just as it is in teaching–there is so much data without meaningful time to address it. Building in time for application is the final step in transferring ownership to students. 

I like to do this throughout the writing process with small chunks. For example, I often have students write, evaluate, rewrite and reflect on their thesis or topic sentences, or analysis, using a Google form. I also find giving whole class feedback on patterns and then having students revise one in their writing works well. Sometimes I anonymously take one student’s paper and we rework it as a whole class. Then, students need to rework their own piece applying what they just learned.  

I recognize all of this requires more time. But, ultimately, depth over breadth is another way we transfer writing ownership to students. 

Do you have resources or strategies to help students own their writing? I’d love to hear about them!

using circle practice in the classroom

The post that appears below is the original draft I submitted to Edutopia, an amazing website of all things education! (To all my readers working in schools, it is highly valuable and worth following.) 

Using Circles in the Classroom

When I think about my style as a teacher, two words come to mind: community and communication. First, I want my classroom to be a place students want to be, a place they feel safe and loved and valued; I want them to believe their stories matter. Second, I want my classroom to be filled with the presence and merit of student voice; I want them to tell their stories. These two qualities are inextricably linked. When students belong, they open up; when students open up, they belong. 

I have found an effective and meaningful path to both community and communication in my classroom is circle practice–or council as called by my training program–inspired by Restorative Justice (RJ). Though originating in criminal contexts, RJ has become quite popular in schools as of late. Many educators approach Restorative Approaches as an upgrade to traditional discipline approaches (moving away from mere consequences toward real responsibility based on relationship), but at its core, RJ is not meant to be a reactive program but rather a proactive program. This can be achieved most impressively through circle practice. Based on the ancient practices of indigenous peoples, circles are designed as spaces where everyone is equal, valid, present, and involved. 

I have used circle practice to serve academic, social-emotional, reflective, and restorative purposes in my classroom with students, as well as with my colleagues. Here’s how. 

Set Up

First, set up the physical space. After years of practice, I have a routine. On my centerpiece–a beautiful knitted round blanket I received from a colleague–are laid various “talking pieces”: rocks, crystals, stuffed animals, toys, etc that act as the physical signifier to indicate whose voice we are listening to at any time. Around that are enough chairs for all participants; these chairs must be in close proximity to foster the intimacy. Of course, this usually occurs in a classroom, so all this placement occurs after the requisite moving of desks. If you are just beginning though, a circle and one talking piece will suffice. 

Next, set up the purpose and expectations. If it is the first circle with a group, I have this overview printed as a handy guide. I explain the overarching purpose of circle: to form a community with open lines of communication–so important to taking intellectual risks. I set up the norms: 1, speak from the heart (only with the talking piece, authentic contributions); 2, listen from the heart (without judgment, with compassion, circle is the one place in society where we have the complete focus of people without distractions); 3, speak spontaneously (spend time listening, not thinking about what you’re going to say); 4 speak leanly (especially important with big groups); and 5, what is shared in the circle stays in the circle (I stress this fiercely). Because I always do this thoroughly early in the year, it sets up circle culture for the rest of the year. After this general set up, refine the intention for the current circle. Is it to build relationships? Is it to explore an academic topic? Is it to rectify a wrong? Is it to explore an issue of concern? Is it for reflection?

Structure

With the physical space and expectations established, it is time to set up the structure of circle. Three basic components comprise a circle routine: opening, prompts, and closing. 

The Opening

The opening consists of the norming (as already discussed); directions (after the prompt is posed, pick a talking piece that speaks to you, share, then pass to the left as the sun moves across the sky); the name round (if participants do not know each other); and an ice breaker question (a light, easy question that invites everyone’s voice into space without threat, such as what is your favorite music, ice cream flavor, season, etc). I also lead a moment of mindfulness to begin. 

The Prompts

After the opening comes the prompts: the best part about circle! It is so flexible and the prompt rounds can serve a number of purposes. This is where the magic happens.

Circles are effective at the beginning of the year as a means to start identifying and planning for students’ individual needs. The following questions serve this purpose: What kind of learner are you? Who is a teacher who has influenced you greatly and why? What do you need from your peers to be successful? What are your learning pet peeves? How do you feel about reading, writing and/or speaking? 

Circles are also great to close the year. The intention of these prompts are celebration and reflection with questions like: How have you grown this year? What do you wish you would have done differently? How has this course prepared you for next year? What is a favorite memory from this year? 

Circles build relationships. I print out a bunch of get to know you questions, lay them around the centerpiece, and students pick which questions to use for the prompt rounds. Or students craft questions to ask each other. 

Circles can be used for a restorative approach as well. One time when I was absent for PD, the sub reported disrespect and damage to the room. The questions that time were RJ based: What happened? Why did it happen? Who was affected and how? How do we repair the wrongs? Following the circle, the students cleaned the room and wrote apologies–per their conclusion.

Circles serve academic purposes as well. For example, before beginning Ceremony, I printed many articles with information about issues affecting Native Americans. I laid them all out around the circle centerpiece with baskets of pens/pencils/post-its. I then give directions (pick an article that attracts you, read and annotate, be prepared to share). Then I asked questions such as: What predictions do you have about the novel based on these articles? What is something that stood out to you and why? What comparisons can you make between these texts and others we have read? 

Circles are spaces to care for students in their moments of stress or trauma. One day in my IB class, things felt deeply off. Instead of a lesson, we meet in circle to discuss: How are you? What’s overwhelming you? How do you self-care? Who lifts you up when you are down? How can we support one another? After a heartbreaking flare up of gang violence in one school’s neighborhood, we wept together in circle, answering questions like: What makes you feel afraid? What makes you feel safe? What do you need? How can we move the community forward? 

Circles can also be meaningful for staff as well. Circles are a great way to establish collaborative norms: What do you need from your colleagues? What are you collaboration pet peeves? How do you best handle difficult conversations? How do we want our group to be defined? Circles are great openers for staff at the beginning of the year: What are you most looking forward to this year? What are you apprehensive about? If your colleagues needed to know one thing about you, what is it? Circles are great protocols for staff to reflect on their practice: What’s going well? What are you working on? What’s been a successful/ineffective lesson you’ve taught and what made it so? Circles are a safe place for staff to respond to their own trauma/stress. During the same period of gang violence mentioned above, we had a circle for staff to cope and process as well: What is worrying you? What is your wish for our community? How can we move forward? What do you need from your peers? What do you want for our students? I hosted a circle for interested colleagues after the most recent presidential election: How does this affect you? How does it affect our students? How can we move forward? What do you need? What resources can we provide our students. 

Circles can serve any purpose. All you need are meaningful prompts. 

The Closing

Because circles can be so powerful, they necesitate closure. There are a couple ways to do this. You can keep it light with a group high five or a silly coordination game. You can do a witness round in which participants share one word on their mind. You can end with a sentence starter prompt such as “I was… but now I am…” The closing offers an opportunity for participants to transition in a healthy way. It is also critical to remind participants of the norm that what was shared in the circle stays in the circle. 

Some of my most memorable moments in the classroom have been inside of a circle, and they are always treasured moments of community and communication. 

I think my students would say the same. 

Tried and True Teaching Tools

writing into meaning

Reflections

An archive of reflective pieces included in school memos and publications.

gadflyonthewallblog

"To sting people and whip them into a fury, all in the service of truth."

Escaping Bars

Writings on Love, Pain, Overcoming, Hope, Longing, Justice, and Injustice

juliaetorres.blog

Strength \ Vision \ Service \ Exploration

A Tree On Fire With Love

But it's still scary sometimes because most people think love only looks like one thing, instead of the whole world

teaching With "Ang-sigh-eh-tea"

The life of a teacher who struggles with anxiety and depression.

Sampa Sympatico

A Yankee Teacher's Experience of Sao Paulo, Brazil

LINDSAY JILL

The journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step

Once Upon a Time in México

Living my dream of teaching, traveling, and discovering culture

Teach. Travel. Taste.

A peek into the life of an American teacher in Colombia

2seetheglobe

Adventures in Globetrotting

Nomad Notions

Tales of Expat Living, Teaching, and Tramping in Taiwan and Beyond.

Sojourners' Journal

“Each of us is here for a brief sojourn; for what purpose he knows not, though he sometimes thinks he senses it. But without deeper reflection one knows from daily life that one exists for other people." —Albert Einstein

Middle East by Midwest

Observations and Experiences of Bahrain

Ex(pat) and the City

The life of a twenty-something Canadian living & teaching in Korea.

ISR Discussion Boards

ISR Discussion Boards are open to site members and visitors alike. Your Voice Counts.

Teaching & Traveling

The Life of An International Teacher

EAT~PRAY~TRAVEL

THE ADVENTURES OF A NOMADIC EDUCATOR

pedagogyofthereformed

Teaching in Brooklyn in Spite of Everything

Actively Dying

by Peter Fall Ranger

Practicing Presence

An attempt at mindfulness in life, learning, and love

chanyado

by Aleya Kassam

Words Half Heard

writing into meaning

Greatfull

A snapshot of my journey to living each day with gratitude and striving to be full of greatness

tspelczech

"I'm too old to live my life in fear of dumb people." - Charlie Skinner, The Newsroom

Perfectly Pleased

Finding joy and beauty in the simple things

Cultivate Clarity

creative writing and mindfulness-based coaching, workshops, and retreats

Crawling Out of the Classroom

In everything that my students and I do together, we strive to find ways to use reading and writing to make the world outside of our classroom a better place for all of us to be

ADVENTURES ON THE YOGA MAT

writing into meaning

affectiveliving.wordpress.com/

Purpose, Perspective, and Perseverance for thriving in a challenging world

candidkay

Taking the journey, bumps and all

jenny's lark

the beauty of an ordinary life

Nonlinear Compilations

Parenting, teaching, writing, and learning to find beauty in the present

talk from chalk

What I've learned while teaching

Thoughtful teaching

Thoughts on teaching in the modern world.

Hope, Honor, and Happiness

A blog for the book “Kingdom of the Sun” and discussions on finding the Hope, Honor, and Happiness in education, life, and the seemingly impossible.

Secret Teacher

Life inside the primary classroom

A Confederacy of Spinsters

Sex, Dating, and Surviving Your Twenties

Miss Four Eyes

Seeing twice as much absolutely counts as a super power.